Pulmonary hypertension

Pulmonary hypertension is defined as an increase in mean pulmonary arterial pressure (PAPm) ≥25 mmHg at rest as assessed by right heart catheterization.
Haemodynamic definitions of pulmonary hypertension:
  • Pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension (i.e. lung diseases, Chronic thromboembolic)
  • Post-capillary pulmonary hypertension (i.e. left heart disease)
Comprehensive clinical classification of pulmonary hypertension is intended to categorize multiple clinical conditions into five groups according to their similar clinical presentation, pathological findings, haemodynamic characteristics and treatment strategy:
  • Group 1: Pulmonary arterial hypertension, Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease and/or pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis, Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn
  • Group 2: Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease
  • Group 3: Pulmonary hypertension due to lung diseases and/or hypoxia
  • Group 4: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and other pulmonary artery obstructions
  • Group 5: Pulmonary hypertension with unclear and/or multifactorial mechanisms
Patients belonging to groups 2 and 3 represent an important part of the clinical practice.

Pulmonary hypertension prevalence is about 97 cases per million.

Symptoms are non-specific and and typically induced by exertion in the initial stages of the disease, while in advanced forms of the disease they occur at rest.
They include exertional dyspnea, fatigue, angina and syncope.

ProKardia, through a team of specialists, offers an assistance aimed to ensure:
  • diagnostic management based on the possible pathophysiological mechanism
  • risk stratification
  • therapeutic management

Reference: European Heart Journal (2016) 37, 67–119

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