Nephrology is a branch of internal medicine that deals with kidney diseases and, therefore, with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases that can cause them.

The disorders that can affect kidneys are of order:
  • glomerular/vascular , affecting kidneys functional units or associated vessels,
  • tubular/interstitial, affecting renal tubules and surrounding tissues,
  • mineral metabolism.
Heart and kidney are closely connected to each other and the pathologies of one can affect the functioning of the other and vice versa.

The nephrologist first of all takes care of conducting an accurate anamnesis, inquiring about patient's medical and family history. In a second phase, he proceeds to a complete clinical examination. Additional tests he may order include:
  • blood test,
  • urinal analysis,
  • biopsies,
  • renal ultrasound,
  • X-rays.
In general, contacting a nephrologist is useful when you are in the presence of:
  • hypertension not controlled by drugs,
  • acute or chronic renal failure,
  • presence of protein in urine,
  • presence of blood in urine,
  • chronic or repeated urinary tract infections,
  • recurrent kidney stones,
  • kidney cysts,
  • tumours of the kidneys or urinary tract.

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