Cardiac arrhythmias refer to abnormal heart rhythm.

They can arise due to:
  • abnormalities of the electrical impulse origin
  • abnormalities of the electrical impulse propagation
  • abnormalities of the cellular electrical stability

These abnormalities result from:
  • genetic variations and mutations: i.e. congenital long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia
  • cardiovascular diseases acquired along life: i.e. post-infarct and post-myocarditis ventricular arrhythmias.

Depending on the disorder type, arrhythmias can be divided into:
  • tachyarrhythmias: heart rate usually above 100 beats/minute
  • bradyarrhythmias: heart rate usually below 50 beats/minute.

Tachyarrhythmias include:
  • physiological and pathological sinus tachycardia (inappropriate, re-entry, postural orthostatic)
  • focal and multifocal atrial tachycardia
  • atrioventricular re-entry tachycardia (i.e. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome)
  • typical and atypical nodal re-entry tachycardia
  • atrial flutter
  • atrial fibrillation
  • monomorphic and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia
  • ventricular flutter
  • ventricular fibrillation

Bradyarrhythmias include:
  • sinus node dysfunction
  • atrio-ventricular node blocks

Clinical presentation is very varied: from the absence of symptoms to the presence of symptoms of importance, duration, frequency and type different such as palpitations, breathlessness, lipothymia or even alterations of the state of consciousness and sudden death.

Diagnosis is not always simple due to the transience of the events themselves.

For this reason, we use customized monitoring systems for a correct evaluation.

Therefore, ProKardia, through a team of specialists, offers an adequate assistance aimed to ensure:
  • Risk-group screening (i.e. infants, athletes, patients with a family history of sudden death, patients with a previous myocardial infarction)
  • Diagnosis and monitoring
  • Arrhythmic risk stratification
  • Therapeutic management and prevention


  • European Heart Journal (2020) 41, 655-720
  • European Heart Journal (2013) 34, 2281–2329
  • European Heart Journal (2020) 00, 1-126
  • European Heart Journal (2015) 36, 2793–2867

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